Red Cell Antibody/Antigens


The antigens expressed on the red blood cell determine an individual’s blood group. The main two blood groups are called ABO (with blood types A, B, AB, and O) and Rh (with Rh D-positive or Rh D-negative blood types).

The functions of many of the blood group antigens are not known, and if they are missing from the red blood cell membrane, there is no ill effect. This suggests that if the blood group antigens used to have a function, e.g., one particular blood group antigen made red blood cells more resistant to invasion from a parasite, it is no longer relevant today.

But the presence or absence of red blood cell antigens becomes extremely important when blood from different people mixes, e.g., when a patient receives a blood transfusion from a blood bank. This also happens when a mother becomes pregnant because during labor, a small amount of fetal blood enters her circulation. In these circumstances, exposure to the foreign antigens on the red blood cells can trigger immune reactions.

It is not possible to completely remove the danger of adverse reactions when blood from two people mix, but the danger can be minimized. Before a blood transfusion takes place, the blood to be donated must be “typed and cross matched” with the patient’s blood to ensure immune compatibility.

The distribution of the four ABO blood types, A, B, AB, and O, varies in populations throughout the world. It is determined by the frequency of the three alleles of the ABO gene in different populations. Blood type O is the most common worldwide, followed by group A. Group B is less common, and group AB is the least common.

People with blood type O are said to be “universal donors” because their blood is compatible with all ABO blood types. It is also the most common blood type in populations around the world, including the USA.

Types: anti Fya, anti Fyb, anti K, anti k, anti c, anti C, anti D, anti D-Slide, anti E, anti e, anti jka, anti jsa, anti VEL, anti s, anti S anti U, etc.






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